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Es represent the gag sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The blue squares show the new divergent branches formed by viruses sampled in this study. Sequence C.ZM.2006.ZM1464F appears to have been mis-labelled in the LANL database, and consistently groups with subtype A1. Additional file 2: Detailed phylogenetic a
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Cias Zembe1, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole2, Carolyn Williamson1,4 and Wendy A Burgers1*AbstractBackground: Cameroon, in west central Africa, has an extraordinary degree of HIV diversity, presenting a major challenge for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Given the continuing need to closely monitor the emergence of new HIV variants in the country, we analyzed HIV-1 genetic diversity in 59 plasma s
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Kh R, Awazi B, Hewlett I: Increased genetic diversity and intersubtype recombinants of HIV-1 in blood donors from urban Cameroon. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007, 45:361?63. 6. Ndembi N, Abraha A, Pilch H, Ichimura H, Mbanya D, Kaptue L, Salata R, Arts EJ: Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in Yaounde, Cameroon: evidence of major drug resistance mu
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Ck squares at the end of the branches represent the nef sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. Abbreviations HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; CRF: Circulating recombinant form; URF: Unique recombinant form; RNA: Ribonucleic acid; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction. Competing interests The authors declare that they ha
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Tential impact of HIV-1 diversity on both vaccine development and the sustainability of antiretroviral therapies, it is particularly important that molecular epidemiological surveillance is continued in HIV diversity hotspots such as Cameroon. In this study we have focused on characterizing the diversity of gag and nef genes of Cameroonian HIV-1 isolates. These genes are?2013 Tongo et al.; license
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Nowledgements The authors are grateful to Andile Nofemela and Roman Ntale for technical assistance with viral sequencing. This research was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (technical co-operation project RAF/6/ 029), Poliomyelitis Research Foundation (PRF) of South Africa and the University of Cape Town, for collaborative projects with partners in the global South. We thank Ger
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D. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractBackground: Alveolar macrophages (AM) avidly bind and ingest unopsonized inhaled particles and bacteria through class
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Ion of immortalized MARCO and SR-AI/II-deficient murine alveolar macrophage cell linesHongwei Zhou1, Amy Imrich1 and Lester Kobzik*1,Address: 1Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA and 2Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA Email: Hongwei Zhou - hzhou@hsph.harvard.edu; Amy Imrich -