1
S low-cost, nonreplicating, non-integrating, non-pathogenic E2 vaccines could be designed andS low-cost, nonreplicating, non-integrating, non-pathogenic E2 vaccines could be designed and combined with other approaches to advance the field of vaccinology.CONCLUSIONVaccines play a pivotal role in host protection against infectious diseases and have significantly reduced mortality worldwide. Ho
1
R (cnc-bZIP) proteins that heterodimerize with small Maf family proteins and activate transcription from anti-oxidant response elements (ARE) in promoters of anti-oxidant defense genes [30]. Nrf2 is normally bound to its suppressor Keap-1 and is inactive in the cytosol, but it dissociates under oxidative stress from Keap-1 and activates the transcription of target genes [23]. Mammalian Bach 1 and
1
Ies 1-4 and the transcription factors regulating them are among the most important and best studied defensome genes in vertebrates. Vertebrate CYP1 family enzymes play central roles in the metabolism of environmental toxicants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [11,12]. Transcription factors of two classes, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and some nuclear receptor (NR) family memb
1
Ies 1-4 and the transcription factors regulating them are among the most important and best studied defensome genes in vertebrates. Vertebrate CYP1 family enzymes play central roles in the metabolism of environmental toxicants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [11,12]. Transcription factors of two classes, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and some nuclear receptor (NR) family memb
1
Large structural scaffold formed by the multi-domain core enzyme, E2, aLarge structural scaffold formed by the multi-domain core enzyme, E2, a specific dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase. The E2 polypeptide chain is composed of three independently folded domains separated by flexible linker regions: a lypoil domain (LD) of 9.5 kDa, a peripheral (E1 and/or E3) subunit-binding domain (PSBD) of 5.
1
Accharide (LPS) component of the outer cell membrane. Such a toxicAccharide (LPS) component of the outer cell membrane. Such a toxic component triggers secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and it often requires extensive and expensive removal during protein purification, thus affecting the final yield. It was shown that solubility and stability of recombinant E2 scaffolds that precipitat
1
Accharide (LPS) component of the outer cell membrane. Such a toxicAccharide (LPS) component of the outer cell membrane. Such a toxic component triggers secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and it often requires extensive and expensive removal during protein purification, thus affecting the final yield. It was shown that solubility and stability of recombinant E2 scaffolds that precipitat
1
Ve vaccines. Recombinant DNA technology could be a useful approach, mainlyVe vaccines. Recombinant DNA technology could be a useful approach, mainly due to the ability of DNA vaccines to elicit different types of immune response, providing many advantages over traditional vaccines in terms of safety, stability, costs of production, and ease of manufacturing. However, until now DNA vaccines h